Causes and Risk Factors
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition in older adults and the leading cause of vision loss and blindness in people over the age of 65. Over 14% of adults between the ages of 70 and 79 have been diagnosed with advanced or intermediate age-related macular degeneration.
Macular degeneration affects the macula: the part of the retina responsible for the crisp, detailed vision needed for reading or driving. As we age, the tissue in the eye responsible for central vision slowly begins to deteriorate which can significantly affect a patient’s quality of life.
The good news is that our doctors at Oregon Eye Specialists are experienced in issues pertaining to Macular Degeneration and are ready to serve your needs. Read more about the condition and treatments at OES.
Many cases of macular degeneration are a result of aging and the natural deterioration of the eye tissue that is needed for clear vision. However, this disease can also be related to a genetic factor in patients.
Macular degeneration is most common in women and Caucasians, and the risk for all patients increases with age. Other factors that may increase your risk of macular degeneration include:
- High fat diet
- Prolonged sun exposure
- High blood pressure
- Lighter eye color
- Side effects of certain drugs
Patients can minimize their risk of macular degeneration by practicing a healthy, active life and getting regular eye exams. It is important for all patients to exercise regularly, avoid smoking, and eat a balanced diet that includes foods known to preserve vision and prevent eye diseases.
Patients with macular degeneration may notice gradual changes to their vision, including shadowy areas in the central vision, or fuzzy and distorted vision. These areas grow larger as the disease progresses, and can eventually turn into blind spots. Patients may also have difficulty seeing color and fine details.
If the disease progresses to the more serious wet form, patients may also see straight lines as wavy. With wet macular degeneration, central vision loss can occur rapidly, sometimes in as little as a few days or weeks.
Your doctor may be able to detect early signs of macular degeneration before any symptoms occur through a regular eye exam. Any signs of this condition can be further confirmed by testing your central vision with an Amsler grid test – a special tool for detecting macular degeneration.
Regular eye exams are important in detecting macular degeneration and other serious eye conditions as early as possible so that permanent side effects can be avoided.
Treatment and Prevention
While there is no cure for macular degeneration, there are several treatment options available to help patients manage this condition and preserve their vision. The best treatment option for each patient depends on the severity and type of the condition, as well as how much, if any, permanent vision loss has occurred.
Intraocular injections of FDA-approved medications
Avastin, Lucentis, and Macugen are often successful in stopping abnormal blood vessel growth in wet macular degeneration. Your doctor can help you determine if these medications are right for you.
Photodynamic therapy is also effective in removing newly developing abnormal blood vessels that are characteristic of wet macular degeneration.
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Many patients also benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements, which can clear out toxic substances that may build up in advanced cases of this condition.
It is essential for patients with macular degeneration, wet or dry, to seek continuous medical treatment to manage their condition and prevent permanent vision loss from occurring. Our doctors have extensive experience with these conditions and can offer patients the latest, most advanced treatment plans to help preserve your vision and your overall quality of life.
To learn more about our services, call us today to schedule an appointment!